bzz01 and the Autobiography are animated mosaics. The Sea 1 and the 2nd film are reiterative crayon tracings. Cascade was drawn directly onto film, using Cascade brand felt pens. all films are animated at 18 or 24 images per second, the respective running speeds of super-8 and 16/35mm. It is more common to animate at fraction of this rate, but in those days I cared about purity of movement.


I used to use pseudonyms. The most common ones were Zoe Ziegler, Joe Purple, and Mr Abicus.


All the animations are improvised in a continuous stream from first frame till last, except for the Sea part one, which consists of two streams, the opening titles being made last. I used to have a belief in the superiority of improvised work, and would plan not to plan anything. Now I don't bother with that.

cameraless films

The Sea part 2 was made by exposing super 8 film directly to various scenes, without an intervening camera lens. Cascade was drawn onto the film.

video to film to video transfer

The raw footage of Driveway was shot on VHS video. It was transferred to film from a TV screen, one frame at a time, using (hand-timed) 1/4 to 1/2 second exposures. This way you don't get scan lines. After further editing, it was revideoed off a steenbeck, and this is the copy you see.

film to video to film transfer

Australia Day was made in a similar fashion to Driveway (see above), except the original footage was on super 8. This was videoed, and a film was made of the video. At each stage the film was edited, so it took less than half a day to tidy up the final negative.


My early films are unedited. With the Sea part 1 I made one cut, and then starting with Driveway, I became obsessed with using steenbecks to cut film into tiny pieces. There is much corniness evident in Driveway, which I blame on inexperience. The arts council applications for the Sea part 1 and Random Geographical Survey were (successfully) designed so that I could spend several weeks playing with editing machines, and My Land (Not Yours) is largely spliced together out of individual frames. Recently another thread in my work has been returning to a less cut-up style, with in-camera and in-transfer editing replacing time on the desk. Examples of this are Australia Day, Albatross, and Northland Panorama.


These pictures were taken at Sealers Cove in Wilson's Promontory National Park, which is at the southernmost tip of Victoria (and of Continental Australia).


The machines belonged to our landlords and neighbours.

found footage

the images for My Land (not yours) were discovered in a skip outside the education department building in Abel Smith Street, Wellington. They were in the form of filmstrips. It is a fairly lazy way to make a film.